Other web pages loaded fine and Google was accessible from other browsers.
It turns out that the problem was/is an experimental feature called Quick UDP Internet Connections (QUIC) that is designed to speed up secure browsing. Turning off this feature enabled Google to load correctly in Chrome:
- Open Chrome
- Open a new tab
- Type "chrome://flags/" in the address bar
- Find "Experimental QUIC protocol"
- Select "disable" from the drop-down menu
- Restart Chrome